AS THEY SEE IT
Erik Erikson’s “Eight Stages of Man” in Erikson (1963)
Erikson’s stages are highly psychosocial and hopeful. Each presents a challenge to the ego to learn new adaptive skills or suffer limitations on ego integrity.
Psychosexual stage Crisis/Conflict Strength/Virtue
Oral-sensory Basic trust vs. Mistrust Drive, hope
Muscular-anal Autonomy vs. Shame, doubt Self-control, will
Locomotor-genital Initiative vs. Guilt Direction, purpose
Latency Industry vs. Inferiority Method, competence
Puberty and Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion Devotion, fidelity
Young adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Affection, love
Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation Production, care
Maturity Ego integrity vs. Despair Renunciation, wisdom
Margaret Mahler’s (1975) Stages
separation-individuation ( subphases differentiation practicing rapproachement
individuality emotional object constancy )
reintegration vs. fragmentation
Jean Piaget’s Stages ( see Gruber and Von Eiche, 1977)
assimilation accommodation conservation
Abraham Maslow’s (1962) Hierarchy of Needs (from lowest/first to highest)
belongingness / social
Harry Stack Sullivan’s Stages ( see Perry, 1953)
Lawrence Kohlberg’s (1984) stages of moral reasoning
Level Morality is defined by
Premoral 1 Obedience to avoid punishment
2 Gains reward. Instrumental purpose and exchange
Conventional 3 Gains approval and avoids disapproval of others.
Interpersonal accord and conformity
4 Defined by rigid codes of “law and order.”
Social accord and system maintainence.
Principled 5 Defined by a “social contract” agreed upon for the
public good. Utility and individual rights.
6 Personal moral code based on universal, abstract,